Disinformation
Research and reports into the effectiveness of donor and foundation-supported media development and journalism support programmes that address disinformation & information disorder.
Please note that this resource page focuses on the effectiveness of donor and foundation-supported programmes to respond to disinformation.

IDRC. CRDI- AZAMAT ABABAKIROV, AHMED ASHOUR, RAMATHI BANDARANAYAKE, RUWANKA DE SILVA, DOMINIQUE DIOUF, HERMAN WASSERMAN

Meeting the challenges of information disorder in the Global South
"This detailed study provides an overview of the entities that are active in the fight against information disorder in the MENA region, and the methods and responses they use. It also discusses and analyzes legal and human rights issues and the context of freedom of opinion and expression in which they operate."
Reporters Without Borders
2020 World Press Freedom Index: “Entering a decisive decade for
RSF
"This 2020 edition of the Index, which evaluates the situation for journalists each year in 180 countries and territories, suggests that the next ten years will be pivotal for press freedom because of converging crises affecting the future of journalism: a geopolitical crisis (due to the aggressiveness of authoritarian regimes); a technological crisis (due to a lack of democratic guarantees); a democratic crisis (due to polarisation and repressive policies); a crisis of trust (due to suspicion and even hatred of the media); and an economic crisis (impoverishing quality journalism)."

Internews

While the report focuses on the question of what might Internews and other stakeholders - NGOs, civil society organizations, media, digital platforms, legislators, government, academia, and private sector - do better or differently to help address the issue of disinformation in the Philippines, the study's recommendations are wide-ranging and might apply to donors and practitioners in many other Asian countries. The research, for example, suggests that donors need to set up sustainable funding infrastructures that guarantee the independence from specific political agendas; It recommends improving dynamic interfaces between researchers, fact-checkers, and journalists, with the approach followed by Harvard's Shorenstein Center given as a model.

UNESCO/ICFJ

The Chilling: Global Trends in Online Violence Against Women Journalists | International Center for Journalists
International Center for Journalists
A disturbing trend of online violence - from doxxing to death threats - is often tied to larger disinformation campaigns aimed at undermining public trust in fact-based journalism.

Verité Research

This report provides crucial contextual information about the situation of media vulnerability to disinformation in Sri Lanka and highlights the challenges journalism support against disinformation might face in countries where the mainstream media is co-opted by the State or has internalized racist, xenophobic, or hateful attitudes.

Internews - YVONNE T. CHUA, NICOLE CURATO & JONATHAN CORPUS ONG

While the report focuses on the question of what might Internews and other stakeholders - NGOs, civil society organizations, media, digital platforms, legislators, government, academia, and private sector - do better or differently to help address the issue of disinformation in the Philippines, the study's recommendations are wide-ranging and might apply to donors and practitioners in many other Asian countries. The research, for example, suggests that donors need to set up sustainable funding infrastructures that guarantee independence from specific political agendas; It recommends improving dynamic interfaces between researchers, fact-checkers, and journalists, with the approach followed by Harvard's Shorenstein Center given as a model.

Fondation Hirondelle

Sticking to the Facts, Building Trust: our Cure for Disinformation - Fondation Hirondelle - Media for Peace and Human Dignity - Hirondelle.org
This report from Fondation Hirondelle outlines their approach to disinformation, which “centres on the fundamental principles of journalism and on the lessons learned from over 25 years of applying these principles in highly fragile contexts, where access to reliable information for the majority is not a given, and where rumours, hate speech and propaganda undermine peace building and development.”
It features recommendations for governments and development aid donors; policymakers and institutions; media owners; companies and web and social media organisations.

Internews - RACHEAL JOLLEY

New Internews research study: Addressing COVID-19 Misinformation: Lessons From The Frontlines In 100 Countries
The Centre for Freedom of the Media
This Internews research study finds that a global COVID-19 vaccine rollout must be coupled with funding and strategies to support trusted local media worldwide. The report demonstrates an urgent need to support groups at the local level if misinformation and mistrust are to be tackled effectively.
Download the full report here.

National Endowment for Democracy’s International Forum for Democratic Studies - SAMANTHA BRADSHAW & LISA-MARIA NEUDERT

Mapping Civil Society Responses to Disinformation
NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY
“Civil society organizations (CSOs) play a central role in addressing disinformation’s growing impact on democracy. Given the vast scope of the global disinformation challenge, the landscape for CSOs working in this space has evolved rapidly in recent years. [...] How has civil society grown in its understanding and response to the digital disinformation challenge and what should be done to further empower this work? [...] This research yielded several clear observations about the state of CSO responses to disinformation and, in turn, suggests several recommendations for paths forward.”

Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ)

Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ)
Arij | أريج
The policy paper is based on polls involving 229 Arab journalists and dialogue with 17 experts from the press, representatives of local and international institutions concerned with training and supporting journalists, as well as representatives of Facebook, Twitter and Google.
The paper comprises three chapters. First, it discusses what fake news is, distinguishing it from other variations of misinformation and refuting common assumptions surrounding it; second, it unpacks the state of fake news in the Arab world during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically until August 2020; third, it names the most important methods used in the region to confront this news, discussing their effectiveness and shortcomings. Finally, the paper puts forward recommendations to prevent and combat the regional spread of misleading news.

Broadband Commission research report on ‘Freedom of Expression and Addressing Disinformation on the Internet’ September 2020

Balancing Act: Countering Digital Disinformation While Respecting Freedom of Expression - Broadband Commission
Broadband Commission
See especially the section “Typology of Disinformation Responses” and then goes into detail about each type of intervention on how are the responses evaluated.

The Engine Room - BARBARA PAES

Shifting power and funding for resilience: thoughts on how we can achieve a more equitable tech and human rights ecosystem | The Engine Room
The Engine Room
This research project explores ways to build a more equitable technology and data for human rights ecosystem–especially in terms of funding.
"As the Covid-19 pandemic triggers global socio-economic instability, civil society organisations depend on built-in resilience and accumulated resources to remain sustainable, making this research feel all the more critical."
Ahead of a report detailing the research findings, some emerging insights were shared in this article.

UNESCO - CHERILYN IRETON & JULIE POSETTI

UNESCO's new handbook is an essential addition to teaching syllabi for all journalism educators, as well as practising journalists and editors who are interested in information, how we share it and how we use it.
Written by experts in the fight against disinformation, this handbook explores the very nature of journalism - with modules on why trust matters; thinking critically about how digital technology and social platforms are conduits of the information disorder; fighting back against disinformation and misinformation through media and information literacy; fact-checking 101; social media verification and combatting online abuse.
Download the full handbook in 24 languages here.

Council of Europe - CLAIRE WARDKE & HOSSEIN DERAKHSHAN

Information disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making (2017)
Council of Europe Publishing
Information Disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policymaking | Shorenstein Center
Shorenstein Center
This report was published by the Council of Europe, with support from the Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School and First Draft.
Contemporary social technology means that we are witnessing something new: information pollution at a global scale. How do we begin to address information pollution?
This report provides a new framework for policy-makers, legislators, researchers, technologists and practitioners working on the theoretical and practical challenges related to mis-, dis- and mal-information — the three elements of information disorder.
While the historical impact of rumours and fabricated content have been well documented, the complexity and scale of information pollution in our digitally-connected, increasingly polarised world presents an unprecedented challenge.
There is an immediate need to work collaboratively on workable solutions and this report provides a framework for the different stakeholders involved in research, policy discussions, and technical innovations connected to this phenomenon of information disorder.

GEORGIA

East-West Management Institute & the United Nations Association of Georgia

The overall approach to disinformation in Georgia has, to date, been mostly reactive and defensive; however there is a notable trend towards proactivity. Lack of trust and cooperation between the government and civil society is diminishing the effect of efforts carried out by these parties. Therefore, there is a clear need for a more coordinated approach between state and non-state actors. There is also a need for a more comprehensive study of public perceptions and permeability to disinformation and key factors affecting these perceptions.

WHAT IS MISSING?

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